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直径:43cm 


  珐琅彩瓷绝对是瓷器中的“贵族”。清代康熙晚期,内务府造办处设立的珐琅作坊,在传统的铜胎画珐琅基础上,引进外国的各种珐琅彩料和珐琅画技艺,烧制出瓷胎后,再画上珐琅彩画,被称为珐琅彩。珐琅彩瓷胎质地洁白细腻,釉面莹润如玉,色调明快艳丽,制作工艺精湛,有油画效果,远非其它瓷器所能比。作为名贵的宫廷御用器,珐琅彩瓷的生产历史却很 短,只有康熙、雍正至乾隆中期前后约四十年。 珐琅彩料与中国传统釉上彩料不同,主要成分是硼酸盐和硅酸盐的混合物,在不透明的白色易熔珐琅料中加入适量金属氧化物色素,品种非常丰富,主要有白、绿、黄、蓝、紫、矾红、胭脂红、赭、墨等,且有浓淡之别,更有中和色出现,如倭瓜黄、杏黄、蛋黄、葵绿、孔雀 蓝、孔雀绿等等难以计数。 珐琅彩的制造过程非常复杂、精细,在景德镇挑选最好的白色瓷胎,珐琅料从欧洲进口。Enamel porcelain is absolutely the "aristocrat" in porcelain. In the late Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, the enamel workshop set up by the manufacturing office of the Ministry of internal affairs introduced a variety of foreign enamel color materials and enamel painting techniques on the basis of the traditional copper body painting enamel. After firing the porcelain body, the enamel painting was painted, which was called enamel color. The enamel color porcelain body is white and delicate in texture, and the glaze is as smooth as jade. The color is bright and gorgeous, and the production technology is exquisite. It has the effect of oil painting, which is far beyond the comparison of other porcelains. As a valuable imperial ware, the production history of enamel porcelain is very short, only about 40 years from Kangxi and Yongzheng to the middle of Qianlong. Enamel pigment is different from traditional Chinese glaze color material. The main component is the mixture of borate and silicate. Adding appropriate amount of metal oxide pigment into opaque white fusible enamel material, the variety is very rich, mainly including white, green, yellow, blue, purple, alum red, carmine, ochre, ink, etc., and there are different shades, and neutral colors appear, such as Japanese melon yellow, apricot yellow, egg yolk, etc Sunflower green, malachite blue, malachite green and so on are hard to count. The manufacturing process of enamel color is very complex and delicate. The best white porcelain body is selected in Jingdezhen, and the enamel material is imported from Europe.

  在北京由宫廷专门设立的“珐琅作坊”里彩绘、焙烧,整个过程要求非常严格。所以,在所有的瓷器中,珐琅彩造价最贵。珐琅彩造价成本最高,艺术水平也是最高的,且数量少,仅供皇帝后妃秘玩,每一件都是精工细制,每一件都不重样。故在清末之前,出自清康雍乾隆盛世 三朝的珐琅彩瓷器是百分之百的宫廷御用品,绝对不会出现在民间。 清代,所有的瓷器都在景德镇烧,唯有珐琅彩瓷器是在故宫内烧。珐琅彩瓷器在雍正时期技术上到了极盛阶段,这与雍正皇帝本人的喜好有很大关系。雍正帝时常亲自过问珐琅彩瓷器的制造。他钦命怡亲王负责主持,还配备精通工艺设计的郎中海望、员外郎沈嵛、制瓷专家唐英等人专门负责管理,并集中全国的能工巧匠及画家于大内供职。在纹饰方面,发展出诗、书、画融为一体的白地珐琅彩,形成雍正朝独特的艺术风格,达到了雍正谕旨中注重“内廷 恭造之式”,排除“外造之气”的要求。

In the "enamel workshop" specially set up by the court in Beijing, the whole process of painting and baking is very strict. Therefore, of all the porcelains, enamel is the most expensive. The cost of enamel is the highest, and the art level is also the highest, and the quantity is small. It is only for the emperor and empress to play secretly. Each piece is made with fine workmanship, and each piece is not duplicated. Therefore, before the end of the Qing Dynasty, the enamel porcelain from the three dynasties of Kangyong Qianlong was 100% of the Royal goods, and would never appear in the folk. In the Qing Dynasty, all the porcelains were fired in Jingdezhen, only the enamel porcelain was fired in the Forbidden City. The technology of enamel porcelain reached its peak in Yongzheng period, which was closely related to Emperor Yongzheng's personal preference. Emperor Yongzheng often personally involved in the manufacture of enamel porcelain. He ordered Prince Yi to be in charge of it. He also had Lang Zhong Hai Wang, Yuan Wai Lang Shen Yu and porcelain expert Tang Ying, who were proficient in craft design, to be in charge of the management. He also concentrated the skilled craftsmen and painters from all over the country to serve in the University. In the aspect of ornamentation, it developed the white enamel color of poetry, calligraphy and painting, forming a unique artistic style of Yongzheng Dynasty, which met the requirements of paying attention to the "respectful creation of the inner court" and excluding the "external creation" in the Yongzheng edict.

  最典型的雍正珐琅彩瓷是以蓝色珐琅料在器物底部书写“雍正年制”四字款识者。此类款识的珐琅彩瓷器,彩绘纹样和写款的工序几乎都在清宫造办处中完成,属于清宫料款一类。如本文图中雍正珐琅彩红地菊花纹碟、珐琅彩黄地牡丹纹碗、珐琅彩黄地芝兰祝寿图盘、珐琅彩山水纹盘、珐琅彩山水纹碗、珐琅彩绿地月季翠竹纹碗等,均属此类制品根据清宫档案的记载,雍正皇帝不仅将装饰着“精细”、“秀气”纹样的珐琅彩瓷送给素有邦交往来的蒙古和西藏等地的王公贵族,同时也降旨配匣作为典藏品,以备永远传世。

The most typical enamel porcelain of Yongzheng is a person who writes the words "Yongzheng year system" on the bottom of the objects with blue enamel. This kind of enamel porcelain, the process of painting patterns and writing money is almost completed in the Qing palace office, which belongs to the type of Qing palace materials. For example, the Yongzheng enamel red chrysanthemum pattern dish, the enamel yellow ground peony pattern bowl, the enamel yellow ground Zhilan birthday plate, the enamel color landscape pattern plate, the enamel color landscape pattern bowl, the enamel green land rose green bamboo pattern bowl and so on, all belong to this kind of product. According to the records of the Qing palace, Emperor Yongzheng not only gave the enamel porcelain decorated with "fine" and "delicate" patterns to his friends At the same time, princes and nobles from Mongolia, Tibet and other places also ordered that the casket should be used as a collection for eternal transmission.


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