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高:38cm

  清三代御窑瓷器中,乾隆朝以登峰造极的技术独领风骚。那么,什么样的器物堪称乾隆御窑的代表?乾隆朝大件镂空或转心、转颈瓷器是最具代表性的。这是因为乾隆以外的其他朝代没有,就乾隆以前的康、雍两朝来说,社会上没有形成崇尚奢摩富丽的审美时尚;乾隆以后又没有这样雄厚的烧造资金和技术力量,所以大件的、镂空的、转心的、转颈的、开各色光的、工艺复杂到无以附加的大器均为乾隆所独有,是乾隆官窑的杰作。

Among the imperial kilns in the three dynasties of Qing Dynasty, the Qianlong Dynasty was the most outstanding one in terms of technology. So, what kind of artifacts can be called the representative of Qianlong imperial kiln? In the Qianlong Dynasty, the most representative porcelains were the hollow out, the revolving center and the revolving neck. This is because there was no other dynasty except Qianlong. As for the Kang and Yong dynasties before Qianlong, there was no aesthetic fashion advocating luxury, luxury, luxury and richness in society. After Qianlong, there was no such strong capital and technical force for firing. Therefore, large pieces, hollowed out, heart turning, neck turning, light cutting, and complicated crafts were unique to Qianlong The masterpiece of Qianlong official kiln.

  转心瓶,又称「旋转瓶」、「套环瓶」,瓷瓶多镂空开光,意为从中窥探内瓶绘饰,以达观有限而意无穷之妙。作为帝王专用赏玩之物,御用级别甚高,御窑竭尽巧思,力求出新,鲜见相类者。许之衡在《饮流斋说瓷》道:「……乾隆一朝则华缛极矣,精巧之至,几于鬼斧神工……」。转心瓶画工精细,工艺复杂,充分展示了中国制瓷技术的巅峰水平。在一个镂雕外瓶内,套装一个可以转动的内瓶,上绘各种纹样。“内胆”上部外露,藏于外瓶内,胆上有装饰绘画,有四季景物、山水人物、花鸟虫鱼等。内胆活动时,通过“外瓶”的镂孔,可观不同画面,犹如走马灯般。转瓶的制作难度很大,要把外瓶的底部制成鸡心状的钮,把内瓶的底心做成鸡心状的槽,钮和槽要绝对吻合。尤其是要考虑外瓶和内瓶的干燥率,以及掌握好烧成后的收缩率。稍稍不注意,造成钮和槽不吻合的话,即便前面再多的辛苦也是白费。所以,制作转瓶的代价十分大,往往是“百里挑一”。故成品率极低。此件西甲万博app_万博体育手机登录网址_万博app客户端登录高38cm,品相完好。转心瓶的魅力,在于“转“,这一千回百转里,是破静为动之美,是炉火纯青之功,是乾隆鼎盛王朝海纳百川之绝妙呈现。它体现着创新求变的设计理念,是工艺技术与装饰技法进步的结晶,给当代陶瓷艺术设计创作以积极启示。

The revolving vase, also known as "revolving bottle" and "loop vase", is mostly made of hollow porcelain, which means to explore the painting and decoration of the inner vase, so as to realize the limitless and Infinite Wonder of the meaning. As a special object for the emperor to enjoy, the imperial kiln is of a very high level. Imperial kilns try their best to create new ones, but few of them are similar. Xu Zhiheng said in his book "talking about porcelain in drinking Liuzhai":.... " During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, it was extremely exquisite and almost uncanny 」。 The fine craftsmanship and complex process of the revolving bottle fully demonstrate the peak level of China's porcelain making technology. Inside a carved outer bottle, a rotatable inner bottle is set, and various patterns are painted on it. The upper part of the "inner bladder" is exposed and hidden in the outer bottle. There are decorative paintings on the gall, including four seasons scenery, landscape figures, flowers, birds, insects and fish. When the inner bladder moves, it can be seen that different pictures can be seen through the holes in the "outer bottle", just like walking a lantern. It is very difficult to make a rotating bottle. The bottom of the outer bottle should be made into a chicken heart-shaped button, and the bottom center of the inner bottle should be made into a chicken heart-shaped groove. The button and groove should be absolutely consistent. In particular, the drying rate of outer bottle and inner bottle should be considered, as well as the shrinkage rate after firing. If you don't pay attention to it a little, if you don't match the button and groove, even if you have to work hard in front of you, it will be in vain. Therefore, the cost of making rotary bottles is very high, often "one in a hundred.". So the yield is very low. This famille rose vase is 41.2cm high and in good condition. The charm of the heart turning bottle lies in "turning". The thousand times and hundreds of turns are the beauty of breaking static and moving, the achievement of perfect perfection, and the wonderful presentation of Qianlong's heyday. It embodies the design concept of innovation and change, is the crystallization of the progress of technology and decoration techniques, and gives positive enlightenment to contemporary ceramic art design.

  据清代文献记载,转心瓶存世十分稀少。乾隆八年、十一年、十二年、十八年及二十二年,御窑厂曾经先后烧造数件可以旋转的瓷瓶及瓷碗等,转心瓶每一个部件尺寸都要经过精心计算,反复烧制,得出实际样品。再根据样品烧造中表现出的问题逐一从工艺上加以解决,并在全部部件烧功后组成样品,纹饰、色彩、样式全部获得皇帝首肯后才正式烧造。除此之外还要关注烧造时的温度火候控制,一旦出现少许变形便会使整器的制造前功尽弃。内外均以粉彩彩绘的转心瓶需二次烧作,成品率极低。复杂的工艺及艰难的烧制历程,使得存世的转心瓶件件都是无价之宝。

According to the documents of Qing Dynasty, zhuanxinping is very rare. In the 8th, 11th, 12th, 18th and 22nd years of Qianlong reign, the imperial kiln factory fired several pieces of porcelain bottles and bowls that could be rotated. The size of each part of the rotary core bottle had to be carefully calculated and fired repeatedly to obtain the actual samples. Then, according to the problems in the firing of the samples, they were solved one by one from the process. After all the parts were burned, the samples were formed. The patterns, colors and styles were all approved by the emperor before the formal firing. In addition, attention should be paid to the temperature and temperature control during firing. Once a little deformation occurs, the previous achievements in the manufacturing of the whole device will be wasted. Both inside and outside of the bottle are painted with pastel color, which needs to be fired twice, so the yield of finished product is very low. The complex process and the difficult firing process make the pieces of revolving heart bottles priceless.


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